What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principal Of Compressor.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor.

A compressor is a mechanical device through which increased the pressure and density of a gas or vapor. Many types of compressors are used in the field especially in the industry, Such as; Compressor Rotary, Compressor, Compression System, Air Compressor, AC Compressor, Air Dryer Compressor, Refrigeration Compressor, etc. Knowledge about how a compressor works, and troubleshooting air compressors, or any other compressor, enhances an employee’s work skills.

# Purposes Of Compressor: Let us see where Compressor is and where it works for us.

  1. Compressors are used In Ammonia processes plants for feed gas, synthesis gas, refrigeration systems, and air compression.

  2. The compressor is used for carbon-dioxide gas compression in Urea plants.

  3. In oil and gas companies, compressors are commonly used for transmission and for gas extraction.

  4. Compressors are usually used in hydrogen and other hydrocarbon mixers in refining factories or processes.

  5. On Gas processing plant a compressor commonly used to conduct gas, clean gas pipelines, increase gas pressure, or move gas from one place to another.

  6. In all the factories which have pneumatic instruments, the air compressor is used for compressing the air which is used as the driving source to operate the instruments.

  7. Air compressors and refrigeration compressors are used in nitrogen plants and in refrigeration processes, respectively.

# Classification Of Compressor:


https://techproces.com/ Compressor And Compression /
https://techproces.com/ Compressor And Compression /


# Now let’s see what is the compression of the compressor? or

# What is the compression system?

Compression is a system or stream through which the pressure and density of compressible fluids are increased.

There are two types of compression:

  1. Isothermal Compression:

Compressors in which the compression heat between two stages is removed or reduced by the interstage cooler are called isothermal compression.


  1. Adiabatic Compression:

Compressors that do not remove compression heat between two stages through interstage coolers or not add heat from outside are called adiabatic compressions.


Compression Ratio = Discharge Pressure Of Compressor / Suction Pressure Of Compressor. 

# Let’s us now know the Working Principle of Positive Displacement Type Compressor.

The pressure of the gas molecule in the Positive displacement compressor is increased by physically squeezing. For example, now we think about a rotary compressor, we see that the gas molecules’ pressure is increased by the lube-type or screw-type rotor inside the casing of a rotary compressor. Again in the reciprocating compressor, the pressure of the gas molecule is increased inside by the cylinder.

# Similarly Let us now know the Working Principle of a Dynamic Type of Compressor.

Similarly, if we look at the dynamic type of compressor working principle, we can see that the casing and the impeller of the Centrifugal compressor are used to increase the speed of the gas molecule.

  Efficiency Of A Compressor = (Effective Volume / Actual Volume) × 100

# Different Major Parts Of A Compressor:

01. Rotor :

All such parts in a centrifugal compressor are rotated, which is called the rotor.

  • Shaft:

The shaft is the main holder of the rotating part. It is made of solid metal. It is attached to other parts like impeller, balance drum, thrust collar, bearings, seals.

  • Impeller:

The impeller is an important part of the centrifugal compressor. With the help of which gas molecules are converted into kinetic energy. It has five parts.

  1. Impeller Disc,

  2. Impeller Eye.

  3. Counter Disc.

  4. Impeller Width.

  5. Impeller Vane.

02. Thrust Collar:

Centrifugal compressors have thrust bearings or axial bearings. Which prevents axial displacement of the compressor’s rotor.

03. Balanced Drum:

In the case of compressors, this part is called the balance disc. In the case of turbines, this part is called the balance drum. In the case of the pump, this part is called the balance piston. The main function of the balance drum is to prevent the axial movement of the compressor rotor.

In the case of compressors, the balance disc or balance drum is located in the middle or on the far right. In the case of high pressure (above 40 kg) compressor, the balance disc is in the middle. In the case of low pressure (bill 40 kg) compressors, the balance disc or balance drum is on the far left. When the balance disc or balance drum is on the far right, a line from the suction of the compressor is attached to the right side of the balance disc or balance drum. The result is that the pressure in this space is equal to the suction of the compressor. As a result, the compressor rotor cannot move axially to the left. This is how the balance disc or balance drum of a compressor works

04. Seal:

The high-pressure gas molecules located inside the kiss of the sealed compressor prevent the movement of the molecules outwards or towards the lower pressure. Seals are used in three places of Compressor.

  • Gland Seal,

  • Impeller Tip Seal,

  • Stage Seal.

Three types of seals are commonly used in compressors.

01. Solid seal (librarian seal),
02. Liquid seal (oil seal),
03. Gas seal (nitrogen gas).

05. Casing:

  • Horizontally Split Casing (For Low Pressure),

  • Vertical Split Casing ( For Above 40 Kg),

06. Diaphragm And Diffuser:

The diaphragm and diffuser of the compressor are the static part of the compressor. Just as the other parts of the compressor are located in the casing, the diffuser is a hollow space in it. Where the gas molecules coming from the impeller are converted to kinetic energy to high pressure.

07. Bearing:

  • Radial Bearing (For Minimize Radial Load ) ⇑⇓,

  • Thrust Bearing ( For Minimize Axial Load ) ⇐⇒ ,

# Major Components Of A Reciprocating Compressor.

  1. Cylinder,

  2. Piston,

  3. Piston Rod,

  4. Cross Head,

  5. Connecting Rod,

  6. Crankshaft,

  7. Staffing Box / Rod Packing,

  8. Valves

01. Crankshaft:

The crankshaft is a significant part of the reciprocating compressor, that holds or connects the driving system and the connecting rod.

02. Connecting Rod:

Connecting rod It basically converts rotary motion to reciprocating motion.

03. Cross Head:

This transfers the reciprocating motion to the piston rod.


# I shared the link of some youtube videos which you can benefit from watching.

01.  3D animation of axial flow compressor working principle

02.  Screw Compressor Working Explanation by Animation with full detail


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