Pumps & How It Works?

Pumps & How It Works?

A pump is a mechanical device that creates a fluid pressure difference and transfers fluid from one place to another. That is, it creates kinetic energy in the fluid and then transfers it from one place to another by converting the kinetic energy of the fluid into pressure energy.



Pumps typically operate on four factors such as:

  • Type of Fluid,

  • Position of Fluid Label,

  • Fluid Flow, and

  • Fluid Pressure.

# Working Principle Of A Centrifugal Pumps:-

Centrifugal pumps working principle is very common which is used in most of the process plants. Since a centrifugal pump or compressor has two parts, such as a static part and a rotating part. The whole process of centrifugal pump or compressor is done in two steps.

Here the first step is to create kinetic energy in the fluid by rotating the rotating impeller. The impeller generates kinetic energy in the fluid through high torque and throws the fluid into the casing of the pumps.

The second step is to convert the kinetic energy into potential or pressure energy of the fluid by the static casing or defuser of the pumps or compressor.  One or more impellers is used to generate kinetic energy in the fluid of a centrifugal pump or compressor. The volute casing of the centrifugal pump gradually expands towards the discharge, resulting in a decrease in the velocity of the fluid and an increase in the pressure of the fluid, thus increasing the fluid pressure in the centrifugal pump. This means that due to the shape of the volute casing of the centrifugal compressor or pump, the centrifugal force or kinetic energy of the fluid or the velocity of the fluid is converted into potential energy or pressure energy.

Centrifugal pumps are commonly used for high flow rate, medium pressure, and solid content liquids. 

# Working Principle Of A Positive Displacement Pump:-

Positive displacement pumps are generally of two types, one is a Reciprocating Pump and the other is a Rotary Pump. Reciprocating pumps are commonly used for medium flow rate, high pressure, and clean fluids.

The effective principle of the recirculating pump is that it increases the pressure of the fluid by the positive displacement of the fluid between the piston and the cylinder in a two-and-fro motion or between the cylinders, through the front and rear strokes of the piston. Although the pressure of the fluid can be increased a lot by the positive displacement pump, the fluid flow is less in the delivery of this pump. The reciprocating pump delivers fluid in batch-ways with the two-and-fro motion of the piston. It contains a pulsation of the pressure in the delivery of the pump. The discharge manifold is used in the delivery of the pump to reduce the pulsation of the reciprocating pump. 

Typically rotary pumps are:- gear pumps, screw pumps, lobe pumps, vane pumps, etc. And positive displacement rotary pumps are pumps that move fluid using the principle of rotation. The vacuum created by the rotation of the lobe/ gear/ vane/ screw and captures and draws in the liquid. Rotary pumps are very efficient because they manually remove air from lines, eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually. Rotary pumps are commonly used for the transfer of viscous or slurry liquids.



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