Thursday , September 23 2021

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

In order to work in any industrial or process industry, we need to know some common equipment common process some safety rules and regulations which play a helpful role in our field of work.

 

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# Confined Space is a term from labor-safety regulation that refers to an area.

For example:

  • If the place is just like only a worker’s workplace.

  • If the place is closed.

  • If the entrance and exit of the place are very narrow.

  • If there is not enough light or fresh air circulation in the place.

  • If a worker does not have a convenient position to work somewhere.

  • And if a worker has chances to exposed to explosive or toxic gas in any place.

   

Then we can take the place as a confined space. As an example, we can imagine a worker’s technical or maintenance work in a closed storage tank, but which is not ordinarily a habitable space. There he may encounter visible and non-visible hazards.

Example Of Some Confined Spaces:- Tanks, Boilers, Furnaces, Bins, Pints, Silos, Hoppers, Tunnels, Vaults, Pipes, Ducts, Manholes, Sewers, Etc.

# What kind of danger can be in the confined space:-

  • Problem due to the narrow entrance of confined space.

  • Suffocation problem due to the insufficient fresh air ventilation.

  • The problem due to has hidden poisonous or explosive gases.

  • Suffocation problem due to excess nitrogen.

  • Fire risk from excessive oxygen.

  • Free movement is restricted due to different types of obstacles in confined space.

  • There may be a risk of a chemical reaction.

  • Maybe endangered by any radioactive material located inside.

  • There is a risk of being electrified by used electrical equipment.

# The following performance should be done in entering a confined space:-

  1.  Preparatory Measures.

  2.  Authorization.

  3.  Safety Precaution.

01. Preparatory Measures:-  Before a worker can go to work in a confined space, he must perform the following tasks.

  • Emptying And Washing:-  At first, empty the conference space as far as possible and then flash of the poisonous or flammable gases or vapors with an inert gas such as nitrogen, then it also is cleaned by flushing boiling water or steam.

  • Plugging The Pipelines:-  All Inlet, Outlet, vent, and purge lines of confined space should be plugged with plugs or blind flanges.

  • Locking:-  If there is any rotating object inside, it should be well locked and tagged in the switch box.

  • Accessibility:-  Manholes should be easily accessible. In places, they are not, a suitable platform, scaffold, or steps should be provided.

  • Forced Ventilation With Air:-  There must be compressed air ventilation should be supply (19 to 20)%  oxygen.

  • Gas Analysis:-  After air ventilation, that space year has to be analyzed.

     =>  Monitor so that the oxygen percentage is between (19 to 22)%.

     =>  Flammable and explosive gases so that ten percent below the lower explosive limit.

     =>  If any toxic substance or gas present in the analysis then should keep it in The Maximum Allowable Consumption (MAC) value.

 

02. Authorization:-  Before entering a confined space, a signed authorization form should be obtained which stipulates the conditions under which space may be entered. The conditions are as the following:-

  • Condition of the air in the space.

  • Condition of breathing apparatus.

  • The temperature in the space.

  • The concentration of the flammable substances.

  • The concentration of poisonous gases.

  • Ensure sufficient lights in the confined space.

03. Safety Precautions:-  Safety Precautions must be confirmed before entering the confined space. Safety Precautions are the following measures:-

(a). Presence of safety crew:-  Authorization to work in the confined space will be granted when fully prepared rescue workers are present in the workplace.

(b). Wearing personal protective gear:-  The worker must wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) or gear before entering the confined space. Such as gloves, corrugated rubber boats or safety shoes, protective clothes, etc in addition to the breathing apparatus.

(c). Air Ventilation:-  Air ventilation is essential for some of the specific works in confined spaces such as welding, oxy-acetylene cutting, work involving volatile solvents, etc. Ventilation fans can be used to extracting air out of the confined spaces such as welding or cutting, and compressed air can be supplied through the hose pipe to provide fresh air.

(d). Working with open fire and other activities:-   When working with Gases such as acetylene and oxygen it is important to guard the escape of gas. Must not be taken into the confined space acetylene and oxygen or compressed air bottles. 

(e). Activities with electric equipment and power tools:-   To prevent electrocution into the confined space must be used flawless electrical equipment or power tools. Ensure electrical hand tools with double insulated and use safe voltage such as 42 volts AC or not more than 110 volts DC.

It is important to bear in mind that static electricity may be generated during the work and appropriate measures (such as earthing) should be taken to prevent it.

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