Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) Of The Steam Turbine.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) Of The Steam Turbine.

A Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) of the steam turbine is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization for employees to perform an operation or a process about the steam turbine 100% accurately and safely. The goal of SOPs is to achieve uniformity of efficiency, quality output, and performance where there is a reduction in miscommunication and failure to comply with industry rules.

A turbine is a prime mover or machine that rotates with a constant change of momentum. There are many types of turbines available, such as steam turbines, water turbines, gas turbines, wind turbines, sea wave turbines, etc. The steam turbine is an ideal prime mover and has multiple uses. Larger steam turbines are used to operate generators in power plants and smaller turbines can be used to run pumps and fans. Steam turbines can range from 0.5 to 200,000 HP or Horsepower.

 

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Large or small turbines in the industrial field have to be operated very efficiently. We know that steam turbines are rotated by converting heat energy into kinetic energy. The shaft of the pump, compressor, or generator is attached to the shaft of this turbine, so that the pump, compressor, the generator will rotate along with the turbine.

Since we are talking about The Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) Of the Steam Turbine.  We try to find out how the industrial turbines are Start-Up or how they are operated.

 

# Steps Of Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) Of The Steam Turbine:-

The most notable aspect of The Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) of Steam Turbines is the heating up procedure of the turbine. The turbine heating-up procedure is done very carefully. Since the turbine is rotated by transferring the kinetic energy from the heat energy of the steam to the blade of the turbine. Therefore slowly increased the temperature of the turbine to the optimum temperature. Where the condensate does not form as soon as it enters the steam turbine. It is very dangerous for turbines. This condensate can break the turbine blade and the turbine blade can break due to thermal shock. The turbines have to be operated according to the heating up procedure usually provided by the organization or the turbine manufacturer.

  

  • Pre-Heating Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Heating-Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Inspection Works Before Start-Up.

  • Pre Start- Up Check Points.

  • Start-Up Procedures Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Post-Start-Up Check Points.

  • CheckPoints During Normal Operation.

  • Shutdown Works.  

 

# Pre-Heating Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Lube oil circulation must be ensured before heating up.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • The casing drain of the turbine should be kept open.

  • Steam should be introduced very slowly by the steam equalizing line.

  • Of course, in the first 3 hours, the temperature should be increased at the rate of 30°C/H.

  • Usually, Steam condensate will come out with a casing drain at 100 to 150°C.

 

# Heating-Up Procedure Of Steam Turbine.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • Steam must be increased through the heating-up line.

  • Now the temperature should be increased at the rate of 50°C/H.

  • The main steam Inlet and outlet valve should be closed.

  • Monitor Lube oil circulation system.

  • Monitor Lube oil filter differential pressure.

  • Dry steam can be seen through the casing drain when the turbine casing temperature exceeds 350°C.

  • Then all draining steam will come out dry.

 

 # Inspection Works Before Start-Up Procedure Of Steam Turbine.

  • Pipe Cleanliness.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • Alignment Of Pump Or Compressor.

  • Rotation Of Rotor.

  • Pump Or Compressor Bearings.

  • Sight Gase Glass.

  • Lube oil System.

  • Lubricants.

  • Cooling Water System.

  • Pump Or Compressor Exterior.

  • Pump Or Compressor Driver Or Turbine.

  • Priming And Barring.

  • Pump Or Compressor Auxiliary Piping. 

 

# Pre Start- Up Check Points.

  • The lubrication system of all bearing points must be checked.

  • Cooling water must be circulating through all water cooling systems.

  • Prime mover power (electricity or Steam, etc as a driving force) should be checked.

  • Rotate the Pump rotor by hand.

  • level of liquid at the suction side should be checked.

  • Delivery valve closed for Centrifugal Pump otherwise delivery valve should be open.

  • The pump should be warmed gradually by slowly circulating hot liquid through the pump.

  • The spill-back line or bypass line should be open.

  • All Cooling Water System.

 

# Start-Up Procedures Of The Steam Turbine.

  • The suction valve should be open.

  • Priming should be performed properly.

  • The re-circulation valve or spill-back line should be opened.

  • Now ready to increase the turbine RPM by steam regulating valve.

  • RPM will increase gradually by the turbine governor’s wheel.

  • Hold 10 minutes after the 1000 RPM of the turbine.

  • Monitor all parameters of the driver and pump or compressor.

  • The casing drains of the turbine should be gently closed as soon as the steam inlet valve is opened.

  • Monitor Condenser vacuum system work properly.

  • Monitor turbine ejector system works properly.

  • The critical speed of the turbine must be exceeded quickly.

  • When the pump or compressor reached normal operating pressure open the discharge valve slowly.

  • Keep normal the condenser level control system.

 

# Post-Start-Up Check Points. 

  • Monitor the steam temperature.

  • Process parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow, etc.

  • Temperature and vibration of all bearing points.

  • Abnormal Sound.

  • Monitor Condenser vacuum system work properly.

  • Monitor turbine ejector system works properly.

  • Keep normal the condenser level control system.

  • Monitor Turbine load or Steam Consumption.

  • Check the leakage from the stuffing box.

  • Adjust sealing water.

  • Check the bearing lube oil flow and pressure.

  • Check the suction, discharge, lube-oil, cooling water, pressure, and temperature.

 

# CheckPoints During Normal Operation.

  • Bearing temperature.

  • Suction and discharge pressure.

  • Lube oil temperature and pressure.

  • Cooling water suction and discharge temperature.

  • Discharge flow.

  • Seal leakage.

  • Oil level at all bearing points.

  • Driving side energy consumption.

  • Vibration and abnormal sound.

  • Monitor steam Consumption of turbine.

  • The oil level of oil reserves.

 

# Shutdown Works Of The Steam Turbine.

When a turbine operates at a high speed the following steps are to be adopted to shut down the turbine.

  • Open the Spielback or bypass line or anti-surge line or compressor balance line.

  • Monitor Vibration and abnormal sound.

  • Slowly Decrease the RPM of the turbine.

  • The critical speed of the turbine must be exceeded quickly.

  • Slowly shut off the steam valve, close the discharge valve fully.

  • Do not shut off the cooling and sealing liquid Supply until the shaft has stopped turning fully.

  • Monitor all Bearing temperatures.

  • The casing drains of the turbine should be gently opened as soon as the steam inlet valve is closed.

  • During cool-down must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

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