Steam Boiler। Mountings And Accessories Of Boiler.
A boiler is an enclosed mechanical device. Heat is used to convert water into steam. Heat can be easily transferred from one place to another by means of steam. It is very difficult to find a place where boilers are not used in the process industry. This means the use of boilers in the process industry is extensive.
Here to discuss what equipment, mountings, and accessories are installed in a boiler.
How many types of boilers?
Boilers are generally of two types.
Water tube boilers and
Fire Tube Boiler.
Some more boiler names are mentioned below depending on the type of working principle.
Water Tube Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler
Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)
Solid Fuel Boiler
Hot Water Boiler
Main parts of a boiler.
01. Furnace or conversion chamber.
It is an enclosed space where the fire is ignited by a combination of fuel and air supplied from outside. The walls in the conversion chamber are also usually surrounded by insulating material so that the internal heat does not easily escape to the outside and cause heat loss.
Boilers are again of two types based on the furnace pressure of the boiler. For :
Positive Furnace Pressure Boiler,
Negative Furnace Pressure Boiler.
02. Wind Box:
It is an important part of the boiler which ensures 100% combustion of fuel in the conversion chamber by continuously supplying air through the FDF and helps in producing the desired temperature.
03. Gas Burner:
Fuel is burned through this device in the boiler. The burner basically holds the flame. The following devices are connected to a burner.
The Airline, or Adjustable Air Damper.
04. Steam Drum:
The steam drum of the boiler contains the heated water, from which the saturated steam is separated. Some important equipment is attached to the steam drum like;
Pressure Safety Valve (PSV),
PI (Pressure Indicator),
TI (Temperature Indicator),
Steam Outlet Line, etc.
05. Water Drum/Mud Drum:
The boiler water drum or mud drum is usually located at the lowest level of the boiler. It holds the boiler water.
Usually connected to water drum/mud drum:
It consists of one or more tube bundles connected between a water drum or mud drum and a steam drum. Downcommers are usually attached from the bottom of the steam drum to the skin of the water drum or mud drum. Which acts as a feed water supply between the steam drum and the water drum/mud drum.
07. Riser tubes:
Riser tubes are also one or more tube bundles like down bites. which connects water drum or mud drum and steam drum. Hot water can be circulated from the water drum or mud drum to the steam drum. The prize tube is basically attached to the side of the steam drum from the top of the water drum/mud drum.
08. Soot Blowers:
Soot Blowers is a hot water spray gun. Commonly used in coal-fired boilers. Since coal is used as fuel. It accumulates a lot of dust in the boiler furnace. This reduces boiler heat transfer or efficiency. As a result boiler furnace is regularly cleaned by a soot blower.
Accessories Of A Steam Boiler.
To operate a steam boiler some accessories, and mountings are required which are:
Feed Water Pump:
The feed water pump is used to supply water to the boiler. Boiler feed water pumps are either centrifugal or reciprocating pumps. Multi-stage pumps are used in high-pressure boilers.
Feed Water Heater/Economizer:
An energy-efficient unit of the feed water heater or economizer boiler. Boiler feed water temperature is usually raised by exchanging feed water heat with boiler flue gas temperature. In this, the excess heat left with the flue gas is recovered by heating up the boiler feed water.
Feed Water Filter:
The boiler feed water filter mainly removes foreign particles from the feed water supplied to the boiler. As the process condensate generated from different condensers or processes in the industry carries different types of foreign particles. If foreign particles enter with boiler feed water. It can mix with the steam and destroy the steam-operated parts in the process.
The Steam Trap is a mechanical device or a mechanical mechanism, which automatically allows to ejects non-condensable gases and steam condensate from the steam system, but does not allow live steam to emit from the steam system. Most of the steam traps are nothing more than automatic valves. They open, close, or modulate automatically.
Using a steam trap improves steam quality by draining excess condensate from the steam network or line. Increases boiler efficiency. Protects the steam line from damage.
This is a heat exchanger. Through this, the conversion air supplied to the boiler furnace is heated up. Usually, by exchanging heat with the flue gas, the temperature of the air is increased. The result is hit recovery. This increases the efficiency of the boiler.
The saturated steam generated from the steam drum is superheated to apply additional heat energy. The steam coming out of the Superheater is extremely dry. As a result, the kinetic energy of superheated steam is higher than that of saturated steam.
The working principle of the desuperheater is opposite to the working principle of the superheater. That is, the excess temperature of boiler steam generated through the desuperheater is reduced by spraying feed water.
This is a chimney special. Through which the flue gas of the boiler is discharged from the boiler into the atmosphere.
IDF (Induced Draught Fan):
A fan, draws the flue gas from the boiler furnace. It is placed near the base of the chimney.
FDF (Forced Drought Fan):
A fan is used to supply air into the furnace to get complete combustion.
Mountings Of Boiler:
To operate a steam boiler smoothly and safely, some mountings and accessories are required which are:
Water Level Indicator (LI),
Pressure Gauge (PI/PG),
Pressure Safety Valve (PSV),
Feed Water Inlet Valve.