The Steam Turbine, And How Does It Work?
The turbine is a mechanical device or mechanical mechanism that converts thermal energy to mechanical/kinetic energy. In Petrochemicals, Chemicals, Power Generation, Ammonia, Oil and Gas, and Manufacturing Industries, the steam turbine is used as the driving system or driver. Such as a steam turbine used to drive a power generator in the power plant.
# Purposes Of The Steam Turbine:
01. In the industry sector, the turbine is used as the driving system or driver. Its drives the Compressor, Pump, Blower, Fan, Generator, etc.
02. The turbine is used to generate electricity at a power plant.
# Working Principle Of The Steam Turbine Or How does It work:
We can explain the working principle of a steam turbine in 2 steps.
01. Thermal energy store step, and
02. It converts to work.
= High-pressure steam is commonly used on steam turbines. The thermal energy is contained within this high-pressure steam.
= According to Jull Thomson’s effect, we know that when a pressurized gas is suddenly released into a large area, the pressure will drop, and increase the velocity of the gas molecules. This effect applies to the working principle of the steam turbine. Here steam molecules drop suddenly by the jet nozzle of the turbine, decreasing the press of steam molecules to increase velocity. That is the conversion of thermal energy to the kinetic energy of steam molecules. When this kinetic energy hits the blade in the turbine, the blade rotates with the shaft, meaning that the kinetic energy is converted into work or action.
# Classification Of The Steam Turbine:
The turbines are classified on the basis of eight, the foundations are:
(a). On the Basis Expansion Process, It is divided into three parts:
01. Impulse Turbine,
02. Reaction Turbine,
03. Combined impulse and Reaction Turbine.
(b). On the basis of the steam condensing system, the turbines are divided into four types:
01. Back Pressure Turbine,
02. Condensing Turbine,
03. Extraction Turbine,
04. Mixed Pressure Turbine.
(c). On the basis of steam flow Direction:
01. Axial Turbine,
02. Radial Turbine,
03. Tangential (Helical) Turbine.
(d). On the basis of the stage:
01. Single-Stage Turbine,
02. Multi Stags Turbine.
(e). On the basis of steam entry configuration:
01. Full Admission Turbine,
02. Partial Admission Turbine,
(f). On the basis of application:
01. Electrical Power Generation Turbine,
02. Industrial Turbine,
03. Marine Turbine.
(g). On the basis of pressure:
01. High-Pressure Steam Turbine (>100) kg/cm2
02. Medium Pressure Turbine (40 to 100) kg/cm2,
03. Low-pressure turbine (<40) kg/cm2
h). On The Basis Of Driving Source :
01. Steam Turbines,
02. Gas Turbine,
03. Wind Turbines,
04. Hydraulic Turbine.
# The Steam Turbine Consists Of 04 Basic Parts:-
Rotor, which carries the blades or buckets
Stator, consisting of cylinder and casing, which are often combined and within which the rotor turns
Nozzles or flow passages for the steam, which are generally fixed to the inside of the cylinder
Frame or base for supporting the stator and rotor
# There’re 4 Directions Of Steam Flow Inside The Steam Turbine:-
1️⃣ Axial Flow:-
>> It signifies steam flow substantially parallel to the axis of rotation, among blades that are set radially. This is the only arrangement used in medium and large turbines and is most commonly used also in small turbines.
2️⃣ Radial Flow:-
>>It’s obtained when the steam enters at or near the shaft and flows substantially radially outward among blades, which are placed parallel to the axis of rotation.
3️⃣ Tangential (Helical) Flow:-
>>Tangential flow is the term applied when the steam enters through a nozzle placed approximately tangent to the periphery and directed into semicircular buckets milled obliquely into the edge of the wheel.
4️⃣ Mixed Flow:-
>>Mixed flow is applied to the flow when it enters in the radial direction and leaves in the axial direction. These types of radial inflow turbines have been widely used with gasses and, in some cases, with steam.
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