What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?
## Lubrication:- Applying the right amount of lubricant and the correct method is called lubrication. There is no place such as in Ammonia Process, Basic Process, Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Technology, Chemical Industries, Lubricant Manufacturing, Manufacturing Industries, Oil and Gas, Petrochemicals, where lubrication is needed to a moving or rotating machine to reduce wear, friction, and temperature.
## Lubricant:- It is a kind of slippery substance. Which is applied to a moving or rotating machine to reduce wear, friction, and temperature?
# Lubricants are three types:-
# Function of Lubricant:-
Reduce friction and wear.
Prevent rust and corrosion,
# Liquid Lubricant:- Crude oil from the mine is the main source of lubricants. Lubricating oils are composed of
Base oil (Mineral or Synthetic) and
=> Mineral oil:-
Mineral oils are the refined product of petroleum crude oil.
=Methan(CH4) and Ethan(C2H6) are known as natural gas.
=Propen(C3H8) and Butane(C4H10) are liquefied by compression and cooling. Its commercial name is LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas).
=> Synthetic oil:-
Synthetic oils are suitable for very low and high temperatures. And it’s very costly.
Additives are a composition of chemicals, which are used to improve lubricant properties.
# Properties of good lubricants:-
=> ISO (International Organization For Standardization) in the case of viscosity, the kinetic viscosity of the lubricant is measured, and it’s unit CST (Centistokes). ISO developed 18 viscosity grades of industrial lubricant oils from 2 to 1500 CST (Centistokes) at 40°C.
=> There is another standard temperature other than ISO, known as its SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds), and its standard temperature is 37.8° C.
=> The higher the viscosity index, the better the quality of the lubricant.
=> In the case of a good lubricant, the flashpoint will always be lower than its fire point.
=> In the case of a good lubricant, the fire point is 33°C above the normal Flashpoint of the lubricant.
=> And the value of Pour Points will always be negative(-Ve).
# Semi-Solid Lubricants (Grease):-
Grease =Lube Oil(80%) + Shope/Thickener(10%) + Additives(10%).
=> Grease is commonly used in low-speed machines.
=> Grease can also be applied in horizontal, angular, and vertical areas.
=> According to the ISO (International Organization For Standardization), lube oil of 100 to 150 grades is used to make the low-temperature Grease.
=> According to the ISO (International Organization For Standardization), in the case of High-Temperature Grease, 460-grade lubricant oil is used.
=> Again Synthetic oil (Chlorofluorocarbon ) is used to make Grease (-51°C to +315°C).
# Properties of Semi-Solid Lubricants (Grease):-
=> Dropping Point and Consistency(Hardness) are the main properties of Grease.
=> According to the NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute), the Working Point of Grease Must be less than the Dropping Point of Grease.
=> The Consistency or Hardness of the Grease depends on, the lube oil viscosity and scope at 25° C.
=> According to the ISO (International Organization For Standardization), Lube oil is divided into 18 Grade at 40°C and According to the NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute), Greece is divided into 09 Grade at 25° C.
# Types of Grease and their use:-
Calcium Base Grease:-
-Excellent water resistance.
-Working temperature (-12°C to +160°C).
Lithium Base Grease:-
-Coal and dust resistance.
Sodium Base Grease:-
-Not suitable where water is present,
-Working temperature(-30°C to +80°C).
Benton Base Grease:-
-Bentonite clay is used,
-The working temperature is up to 260°C.
# Solid Lubricant:-
Practically solid lubricants have self-lubricating properties.
–Graphite (Its have 99.9% Carbon).
–Molybdenum Disulfide(MoS2) / Molykote, (-80°C to +450°C).
-PTEE (Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethane) / Teflon, (-200°C to +300°C).
# Method of lubrication:-
Oil bath lubrication,
Circulating oil lubrication,
Splash oil lubrication,